by B.Hardin and D. McCool
The following is a summary/ reader’s notes, listing up the main ideas, to be used for studying purposes. All information is the authors’ intellectual property.
In order to purchase “BIM and Construction Management: Proven Tools, Methods, and Workflows”, by B. Hardin and D. McCool, (Wiley, 2nd Edition, 2015) click https://www.amazon.com/BIM-Construction-Management-Methods-Workflows/dp/0470402350.According to the authors:
Chapter 1: Why is Technology so important to Construction Management
-technological shifts: “(…) two basic strategies you can use: innovation and kaizen” (op.cit., p.5) –innovation == “radical, immediate rethink of the status quo” (op.cit., p. 5) –Kaizen == “small, doable steps towards improvement” (op.cit., p. 5)
-the authors distinguishes two methods for selecting new tools: -“pile on” – in which the new tools are looked at “consistently as an addition to their current systems” -“swap out” – “a direct replacement strategy” · BIM starting point – “object-based parametric modeling technologies (…) developed by Parametric Technologies Corporation in the 1980’s” (source: BIM Handbook, p.29, in op.cit., p.9)
Using Contracts in Planning
They "act as a template for teams to detail how they will work to deliver a BIM project": 1. Penn State BIM Project Execution Planning Guide 2. DBIA BIM Manual of Practises and Check List 3. USACE BIM Project Execution Plan 4. GSA BIM Guide
· MOU (memorandum of understanding) = (for DB and IPD) “charter document that maps out the intentions of the project team, the high-level deliverables of a project, resolution methods, and goals” (op.cit., p.20)
Navisworks, Syncro, Vico “make the process of editing both the model files and the schedules much easier” (op.cit., p.21)
Chapter 2: Project Planning
Delivery methods (Source: “Bim and Construction Management”, p.47) 1. Design Bid Build (DBB)
2. Construction Manager at Risk (CMAR)
3. Design Build (DB)
4. Integrated Project Delivery (IPD)
· DBB =”most traditional (…) the owner (…) two contracts (…) one with the architect and one with the contractor” =”linear process” – in this method the designer delivers the schematic design drawing set and the contractors generate estimates, compile the estimates, deliver a bid to the owner.Advantages (according to the authors of “BIM and Construction Management”, p. 50): +AEC is familiar with this method +low bid gets the job +no legal barriers, accepted in every state +owner+architect = traditional relationshipChallenges (according to the authors of “BIM and Construction Management”, p. 50): -no communication between designers and contractors -cost overruns due to estimates not being done through design -RFI’s and change orders create friction between architects and contractors -increased litigation –slower delivery method BIM use in DBB -“limits the abilities for BIM to be used to its full potential” (op.cit., p.50) – only the 3d modeling capabilities, BIM used to produce documentation faster, but, due to no overlapping, parties don’t share models. · CMAG = “similar to DBB. The owner (…) has to manage two separate contracts: one with the architect and one with the contractor. (…) the contractor is brought in during the design stage”-contractor commits to “deliver the project within a guaranteed maximum price (GMP)” (op. cit., p.53)Advantages (according to the authors of “BIM and Construction Management”, p. 54): + “contractors are involved early in the process” +” (…) contractor to run estimates run during design” + “construction to start before design of the entire building is finalized” + “owner still keeps a traditional relationship with the architect”Challenges (according to the authors of “BIM and Construction Management“, p. 55): – “still (…) two separate contracts, and “owns” all risk of the design, (…) friction still exists between the design team and the construction team” – “the contractor will still be submitting change orders”BIM use in CMAG (according to the authors:) ! It requires anBIM Execution Plan. 1. If owner involves subcontractors early: AE not obligated to use/share models, (traditionally) >> If contractor brought up, they need to produce models in-house or outsource to a third party ->>delay 2. If the owner doesn’t involve subcontractors in the design phase, the models wouldn’t be constructible models on which coordination is possible. ! Unless clear indications on how the models should be used, his method might create parallel efforts · DB == “promoting collaboration between designers and builders because their services completely overlap and they are required to function as a team” (op.cit., p.56); == “the owner manages one contract with the design-builder and no longer “owns” the risk” (op. cit., p56) == The project can be (according to the authors): –designer-led –contractor led –integrated-firm led –joint ventureSee authors’ detailed description of the core aspects of this method, in the subchapters (op. cit., p.58-60): == Worry Free Owners == Owners Are No Longer Mediators == Faster Delivery, Faster Decisions == Trust and Collaboration == Support Design CreativityAdvantages (source: “BIM and Construction Management“, p.60)+ “encourages collaboration” +not necessarily based on price, rather on “qualitative and quantitative decisions” + “has the potential to be the faster delivery method from design to construction” + “the owner manages only one contract” + “the contractor can manage the cost by running estimates throughout the entire design process” + “encourages innovation” + “potential for zero change orders” BIM use in DB – utilizes full BIM potential by “having constructible models throughout the entire design” (op.cit., p.60)= One model that evolves, rather than duplicated effort. Ways to enable single models evolution (source: “BIM and Construction Management, p. 61) 1. An integrated Engineering and Construction Firm 2. An Engineering Firm and a Subcontractor · Integrated Project Delivery IPD == “In DBB and CMAR, the owner “owned” the risk. In DB, the design builder owned the risk. In IPD, the risk is shared between the owner, architect, and contractor, but so is the reward” (op. cit., p.62) == a single goal for the project budget; “If the project comes in under budget, additional fees are distributed to the team, if the project comes in over budget, fees are reduced. ” == ideal collaboration; DB much more than encouraging innovation, it REWARDS innovation; BIM use in IPD + fully potencial of BIM + may create a R&D (research and development team), “thinking outside the comfort zone of proven tools“.BIM Addenda (Contracts)Templates for developing project-specific BIM Addendum (source: “BIM and Construction Management”, p.64)
· AIA E202, created by AIA in 2008 == first version of BIM Execution Plan; – “four sections: general provisions, protocol, level of development, model elements”· ConsensusDocs 301, avantgarde to AIA E202, moving from architect as a protagonist to a mutual agreement between all teams involved -“six sections: general principles, definitions, information management, BIM execution plan, risk allocation, and intellectual property rights“(op. cit., p.65)· DBIA-BIMWD == “guided conversation” (Thaxton Parkinson, in op. cit., p.66) “to help the team decide on the uses as opposed to prescribing the uses“(op. cit., p.66).· AIA E203 -“separation of the contractual obligations stay conistant on projects (general provisions, definitions, and roles and responsibilities), and the project specific items” (op. cit., p. 66) =E201+ G201 +G202 G201=Project Digital Data Protocol Form G202=Project Building Information Modelling Protocol Form
"Collaboration, Not Litigation"Level of Development
=LOD== “minimum dimensional, spatial, quantitative, qualitative, and other data included in a Model Element” (AIA, E203, in op. cit., p.68) – 3 current LOD matrixes used in US (source “BIM and Construction Management”)
USACE (see Table 2.3 p.68, op. cit., for details)
Definition “The BIM execution plan is a document that is outside the governing contracts (DBB, CMAR, DB, IPD) and the BIM Addenda. It contains the instructions for executing BIM and is based on the goals the owner or team defined within the contract or addendum. It defines how the team and software will communicate, what the expectations of the team are, and how the information is organized.” (op. cit., p.75) History of BIM Execution Plan (good starting points to develop BEP for Companies) -Penn State BIM Project Execution Planning Guide -Autodesk Communication SpecificationStructure (according to the authors):
Goals and Use / Objectives Goals and Uses / Objective Chart (see Fig.2.14 / p76) -“”begin with the end in mind”, which gives direction and focus on what’s important to achieving the desired outcomes.” (op. cit., p.76)
See Fig. 2.14, p. 76, op. cit. "E.g. Life cycle of a door Owner - Requests a door Designers -Where was the door sourced -Will it meet code requirements? -What color is the finish and hardware? -Which way does it swing? Contractor -How many doors? -What type of doors? -How much the doors cost? -When do the doors arrive? -How do I properly install them? Facility Management -When am I supposed to oil the closers? -Where do I order replacement parts? -Who do I call when the doors malfunction? -Who do I call for warranty service?"
-BEPs needs an”information exchange plan that can be narrative and/or visual” (op.cit., p.82)
Information Exchange Plan (narrative / visual) (see Fig.2.18 / p. 82) -clarify the format of files to be exchanged, and the frequency -“Autodesk Communication Specification separates into Core Collaboration Team and Detailed Analysis Plan” (op.cit., p.83) -“BIM is only as good as the ..least technical person. You bring them up or everybody else gets to that level. One person who doesn’t follow or understand the procedures, shows up late to meetings, doesn’t upload the models on time, or doesn’t maintain the coordination schedule will cause the whole process to stumble and affect the morale of the team. The expectations have to be universally understood and communicated. Do not assume that everyone understands your expectations. Communicate the expectations for every use of BIM and define them into BEP.” (op. cit., p.84)
Roles and Responsibilities of the BIM/Information Manager, Lead BIM Managers…etc.
Chapter 3: How to market BIM and win the project
The authors determine five key factors: “-(…) what you are proposing shows clear and demonstrable value -Clearly state if this is a proven tool or process, a developing one, or an innovative one -Show real results from the impact of implementation -Give the owner what he/she wants or clearly state why you can’t -Make sure you are offering something that you can deliver” (op.cit., p.98)Innovation events:–AEC Hackathon –ENR Future Tech ConferenceImpact of Risk Reducing Strategies, (see table 3.3, p. 101)ROI == return of investment -“(…) owners with clearly defined and published BIM requirements: -General Service Administration GSA -Los Angeles Community College -U.S Army Corps of Engineers -State of Ohio” BIM Guidelines: http://bimguides.vtreem.com/bin/view/BIMGuides/Guidelines
Chapter 4: BIM and Preconstruction
“The only tradition we need bother about in industry is the tradition of Good Work.” (Henry Ford, “Today and Tomorrow“, in op.cit., p.124)“Collaboration, prefabrication, 5S (…), Six Sigma, value stream mapping (VSM), and just-in-time (JIT) delivery (…) were used in 1930” (op.cit., p.125), which made possible the completion of the Empire State Building 13 months.”Scheduling Design
“In 2011 the AIA released a document called the Design Development Quality Management Phase Checklist“, containing “five major checklists:
Other Consultant” (op. cit., p.141)
“fast track is accomplished by breaking up the design into design increments, (…) as opposed to waiting for the entire design to be complete before construction starts” (op.cit., p.140)
-“in traditional scheduling like the CPM (Critical Path Method), comonly used in construction, one activity ends, which allows another activity to begin” (op.cit., p.143) >> a linear process
scheduling design requires understanding (according to the authors) 1. “what information should be contained within each design increment” (op. cit., p.141) 2. when information is required.
but “the design process is based on these interdependencies, and thus creates a scenario where cyclical patterns can be seen everywhere, but no one knows what activity comes first” (op.cit., p.143) >> opposed to the linear process >> -the incremental dilemma (B. Hardin and D. McCool) == in order to advance with the project, “information of later increments must be accelerated to finalize the earlier increments” (op.cit., p.143)
-Don Steward, coined the solution in 1981: Design (Dependencies) Matrix Structure (a tool to automatically schedule design increments based on given dependencies)Scheduling the LOD
-in BIM projects, LOD has to be scheduled = decide “what level is “enough” in order to have a productive collaboration and early decision making” (op.cit., p.148)-“The key is to identify and prioritize the kind and amount of information and detail required to (1) meet the goals and the expectations for the phase you are in and (2) make progress towards addressing later phases and team requirements.” (R. Deutsch, in “BIM and Construction Management”, p.148 )-“the design manager needs to be crystal clear about the level of detail needed for each design submittal. For example, the detail needed for early permits may be less than required for bid packages for equipment and subcontractors, or for the final construction documents.” (Charles Pankow Foundation, in “BIM and Construction Management”, p.148)Leverage the people
“(…) Your success is dependent on the construction experience of the entire team and their ability to access and review the model. Cloud -based BIM software has given confidence to the hesitant and accelerated the learning curve of inexperienced BIM users.In a sense, these solutions almost trick people into using BIM. Up until now, there has been un underlying skepticism from old school industry professionals toward BIM and the majority of lessons learned are held in the minds of those old-school professionals who claim “I’m too old to learn that BIM stuff, that’s for those techy kids.” (op. cit., p.158)Autodesk BIM 360 Glue==a tool used in collaborative environment that allows user to upload model parts on the network and view a merged model, includes Autodesk email notification etc (similar to Navisworks)Estimating
-estimating with BIM is also refferd to as 5D;-“The traditional way of doing estimating and cost trending is for the contractor to get PDF’s or printed drawings of each deliverable in order to manually take off (estimate) the work and reach out to the subcontractor community for numbers, similar to bidding a project in the DBB method described in Chapter 2.” (op. cit., p.164) .-Revit can perform estimations, included into the Schedules function; total cost can be calculated using the function “Calculated Value” and inserting formulas such as Volume * Cost per 1m3Cost Trending with Assemble
==tool to perform cost trending -“Cost trending is more about being able to track the evolution of a design as a rough order of magnitude (ROM).(…) There are a couple of ways to approach this idea: Sharing Your Company’s Pricing One way is to have a collaborative team where you share your company’s unit pricing with the design team so they can create calculated values within the evolving models.” (op.cit., p. 171) + entire team is aware at any time of extra costs or gains -it implies transparency with company’s cost histories, which are sometimes confidentialCreating your Own Schedules
-“ the new-school BIMstimators” (op.cit., p. 172) -Assemble= one of the cloud based tool for cost trending (source: “BIM and Construction Management”)*see page 173 for instructions on how to create estimations with Assemble*“Here’s your workflow: Designer or BIM Manager exports the model to Assemble. Estimator then logs into Assemble.(…) Now your estimator doesn’t have to wait until the designers click Print. They can be trending the model every day, week, or month without downloading any BIM software to their computer.(…) It creates transparency between the contractor, designers, and owner. Everyone can see why the design is trending up or down.” (op. cit., p.175)Analysis
The 2030 Challenge ” (…) was established by Architecture 2030 to create a roadmap to achieving net-zero buildings by 2030. (…) every new or renovated building “shall be designed to meet a fossil fuel, GHC-emitting, energy consumption performance standard of -70% below the regional (or country) average/median for that building type” from 2015-2020. -80% below from 2020 to 2025 -90%, 2025-2030 -0% after 2030 They believe if we can accomplish these goals we can reduce the dependency of fossil fuels and save our planet for future generations” (op.cit., p.177)
Building Rating Systems around the world (Source:"BIM and Construction Management, Table 4.2, p.178) - United Stated Green Building Council - International Living Future Institute - Building Research Establishment - Green Building Initiative - Japan Green BuilCouncil - International Initiative for a Sustainable Built Environmment (iiSBE)"
Green Building Code requirements (Source:"BIM and Construction Management, Table 4.2, p.179): -IgCC - International Green Construction Code -Title 24 - California Energy Comission -ASHRAE 189.1 - Standard for high performance Green Building -Part L (L1A) - Conservation of Fuel and Power in New Dwellings -ASHRAE 90.1 - Energy Standard for Buildings -ASHRAE 62.1 - Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Regulations -ASHRAE 55 - Thermal Conditions for Human Occupancy"Calculating Concrete CO2 Emissions using Revit
-the heat required to produce 1 ton of Portland cement => 1 ton of CO2 created – by scheduling in Revit: Concrete Floors, Walls =>> Concrete Mass =>> 16% of Concrete Mass = Cement Mass =>> CO2 MassSusteinability analysis with Sefaira
Sefaira = plugin for Revit and Trimble Skp >> “real-time energy analysis and daylighting feedback as you design” (op. cit., p. 182)Logistics and Planning
-Trimble Sketch-up and Autodesk Infraworks 360.